Python Convert 3d Image To 2d Array

Since we don’t need the depth we use slicing to only grab the height and width. angle – input floating-point array of angles of 2D vectors. as long as image is a 2D [M, N] or 3D [M, N, 3] array. You can easily do it by following Life2Coding's tutorial on YouTube: Linking OpenCV 3 with Python 3. I want to maintain the color of the image while making black transparent, like in the model below. Index: The multiplication of the coordinates returns a single integer for a 2D point. Paint Effects and 3D Paint. Fiddle with the options until you get things approximately right. Arrays are by far the most common data structures that could be used in any programming language. Python - Converting 3D numpy array to 2D - Data Science Datascience. We add the first coordinate, "x," and then multiply the second "y" coordinate by the length. Everything here is available on the Internet but it is time-consuming to gather all the info. in numpy docs if you want to create an array from ndarray class you can do it with 2 ways as quoted: 1- using array(), zeros() or empty() methods: Arrays should be constructed using array, zeros or empty (refer to the See Also. It's time to think in 3D, which can be a little frustrating in the beginning. The Unity Editor is a creative hub for 3D artists, 2D artists, designers and developers. As mentioned earlier, items in numpy array object follow zero-based index. This will be your minimum and maximum X values. com How to convert 2D DICOM slices to 3D image in Python. txt file but the code I have written doesn't seem to do this correctly. The : is for slicing; in this example, it tells Python to include all rows. I can see there are examples of doing this in C++ but I'm working on Python for now. Arrays are useful and fundamental structures that exist in every high-level language. A trendy thing to do is create a mirror image of a picture and then fade it to white using some application software. It supports the entirety of the 3D pipeline—modeling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing and motion tracking, video editing and 2D animation pipeline. Takes a sequence of arrays and stack them along the third axis to make a single array. asnumpy and we're assigning that result to the Python variable np_ex_int_array. None of these newer web-based 3D approaches approach the breadth and depth of the desktop SciVis. The three types of indexing methods that are followed in numpy − field access, basic slicing, and advanced indexing. What is an Array? An array is a special variable, which can hold more than one value at a time. Normally, you will pass Python variables into IDL function calls as input arguments or keywords, and receive the result back as an Python variable. After using Write to create the image, we take that data, push in a Python buffer, and convert it to a string. net byte arrays can be easily compared, compressed, stored, or converted to other data types. Enjoy creating isometric worlds!. Learn more about how to make Python better for everyone. A 2D array is a matrix; its shape is (number of rows, number of columns). 4 x 3 images with roughly 10% overlap) Stitch Image Grid Sequence: Stitch a sequence of 2D or 3D regular grids of images. and are the distance between points in image plane corresponding to the scene point 3D and their camera center. import matplotlib. Here are some one-to-one translations for many popular functions in Matlab and python that should make it easier to switch from Matlab to Python. Introduction¶. Create 3D Volume from 2D DICOM Images. Lastly, we use the Image class from the IPython. Not very clean, rather a work around than a solution, indeed. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Requirements: Python 2. net byte arrays can be easily compared, compressed, stored, or converted to other data types. In this post, we will learn how to perform feature-based image alignment using OpenCV. I'm just wondering is there a way to import an image in python using numpy and PIL to make it a 2D array? Furthermore if I have a black and white image is it possible to set the black to 1 and white to zero? currently I'm using: temp=np. 81 Spriteric is a tool to convert sprite images to C source. Greetings, The story: I started using python/numpy to perform data manipulation (3D connected components, etc. Resize an image, crop it, change its shades and colors, add captions, and more. If you want a basic understanding of computer vision’s underlying theory and algorithms, this hands-on introduction is the ideal place to start. We add the first coordinate, "x," and then multiply the second "y" coordinate by the length. Learn the fundamentals of programming to build web apps and manipulate data. Perthon is a Python-to-Perl source code translator written in Perl. used on grayscale images, so firstr I had to convert the image to grayscale. Python | Convert 1D list to 2D list of variable length Given a 1D list ‘lst’ and list of variable lengths ‘var_lst’, write a Python program to convert the given 1D list to 2D list of given variable lengths. Exploring images via coding means that the exploratory work becomes recorded and reproducible. Additionally apply professional digital filters and effects to alter your image. function converts the image into a 3-d or maybe 5-d array i. NumPy was originally developed in the mid 2000s, and arose from an even older package. The only data types you may need to convert to strings are compound data structures such as sets and lists. com I think you can try using NumPy reshape for your problem and here is the documentation (numpy. We will share code in both C++ and Python. imread('image. Assignment to a regular slice can be used to change the length of the sequence:. GetArrayFromImage( image ) Then on the VTK side the. And then store all the elements in. NumPy allow us to give one of new shape parameter as -1 (eg: (2,-1) or (-1,3) but not (-1, -1)). GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Legal Notice. Image Registration using Enhanced Correlation Coefficient (ECC) Maximization. 'jpegimage' is a 3D array. imwrite() to read (load) and write (save) image files with Python, OpenCV. you are converting a 24 bpp image to 8 bpp grayscale. Supports the full featureset of Mason, allowing component-based web development with Python-embedded HTML, and includes many new concepts and features not found in. By default, the image is not copied; changes made to the array will appear in the QImage as well (beware: if the QImage is collected before the array, there may be trouble). pdf* Python_Basics_fig1. performs a forward transformation of 1D or 2D real array; the result, though being a complex array, has complex-conjugate symmetry (CCS, see the function description below for details), and such an array can be packed into a real array of the same size as input, which is the fastest option and which is what the function does by default; however, you may wish to get a full complex array (for. what you found there is an attempt, to build a 3d model from a single image, while opencv only has methods to build a model from calibrated stereo-cams (disparity, block-matching) or multiple images (structure from motion) Its partly in C++, partly in Matlab; and relatively less documented. This is a simple way to stack 2D arrays (images) into a single 3D array for processing. How to Create an Array in Python. This should give you the idea: [code]import matplotlib import numpy maxcolorrange = ? l=[] for row in array: rl=[] for i in range(1024): pixel = [row[i]/maxcolorrange. 2126 × R + 0. Ask Question Asked 12 months ago. js, R, PHP, Strest, Go, Dart, JSON, and Rust code GitHub. 3D Plotting functions for numpy arrays¶ Visualization can be created in mlab by a set of functions operating on numpy arrays. feature_extraction. Then you put the data in a numpy. The (,) syntax is used to declare the array as a two-dimensional array. Essentially, each image is a slice of a 3D object such that, if stacked along the z-axis, would make a 3D object. newaxis in the index. All programs that can use these images must first convert them from that external format into an internal format. This is part 1 of the numpy tutorial covering all the core aspects of performing data manipulation and analysis with numpy's ndarrays. Fastest way to convert Image to Byte array in C# , VB. h Height of desired plot. When I do this I use an RGB image becuase each line of your image needs to be a multiple of 32bits or something like that, it says it in the QImage documention. The old buffer protocol is also supported for Python 2. Modelador 3D - Converte 3 images 2D (frontal, perfil e top) em uma imagem 3D com exportação do código Python para o Blender, por Felipe Martins. Dilation supports n-channel images (ie. This example shows how to convert an image into a two-dimensional LabVIEW array. to calculate the fft. Just change the relevant line of code to: aa = np. PCA Analysis on Images: How do I convert from PIL to Numpy Array and then Back to PIL? I'm new to numpy and PIL and trying to interface between them so I can do some PCA analysis on some images. The maximum and minimum value is dranwn in this area to reflect the image array range. We would like to provide some additional information regarding our EASE files as we represent our products differently than other manufacturers. 2 : Accumulator. Find nearest value and the index in array with python and numpy Daidalos May 12, 2017 Some examples on how to find the nearest value and the index in array using python and numpy:. requires a 2-D array Z that speci es function values on a grid. Help on function GetImageFromArray in module SimpleITK. Use ImageMagick® to create, edit, compose, and convert bitmap images. githubusercontent. The new buffer protocol is supported for Python 2. It can extract 2D array from ASCII text file as well as from multiple 2D image arrays from MDA 2D/3D scan file. array() to create a Numpy Array from an another array like object in python like list or tuple etc or any nested sequence like list of list, Python numpy. Then we can extend this to account for an image plane which is a regular grid of discrete pixels. To convert this PyTorch tensor to a NumPy multidimensional array, we're going to use the. Machine learning data is represented as arrays. Before we discuss more about two Dimensional array lets have a look at the following C program. For example,. The generator tried to minimise the difference between the silhouettes reconstructed into 3D shape. list and array are not the same. NumPy is a package for scientific computing with Python. I have also rescued a drab photo by turning it black and white. vtkImageToNumPy(image, pixelDims): This function allows me to quickly convert a vtkImageData object to a 3D numpy. How can I convert a 2D array 1632x11 to a 3D array 32x11x51 in Matlab? I have '1632x11' array and I would like to convert it to '32x11x51' array such that the values (32x11) after every 32 rows. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. Tutorial Five: Images in Python Imad Pasha Chris Agostino March 4, 2015 1 Introduction Astronomical images are not typically taken in the familiar jpeg or png format. py files) are typically compiled to an intermediate bytecode language (. Is it possible to do the conversion here from byte array to IplImage using Opencv ? Posted 17-Apr-13 20:25pm. Color spaces in OpenCV (C++ / Python) First we will see how to read an image in OpenCV and convert it into different color spaces and see what new information do. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Viewed 8k times 2 $\begingroup$ I have a 3D matrix like this:. 0 im2ascii is a small python script that. The standard way to bin a large array to a smaller one by averaging is to reshape it into a higher dimension and then take the means over the appropriate new axes. NumPy is a Python Library/ module which is used for scientific calculations in Python programming. For example,. If there is a fixed point, we can take that as the origin, and the affine transformation reduces to a linear transformation. This script will install a file called idl_python. x,y,RGB or x,y,R,G,B. Exhaustive, simple, beautiful and concise. 2D/3D cad: dwg, dxf, plt, cgm, svg, pdf v. Here we load an image with the image module, then convert it to a 3D array of integer RGB color elements. Arrays are the main data structure used in machine learning. How can I do that?. This chapter describes how to use scikit-image on various image processing tasks, and insists on the link with other scientific Python modules such as NumPy and SciPy. tolist ¶ Convert the array to an ordinary list with the same items. I want a new 2-d array, call it "narray" to have a shape (3,nxm), such that each row of this array contains the "flattened" version of R,G,and B channel respectively. focal: focal length of the camera. newaxis in the index. Legal Notice. R G B) it would have just one number to define colour. image_data_generator() Generate batches of image data with real-time data augmentation. Think of it this way — an image is just a multi-dimensional matrix. dstack¶ numpy. py goes to the original creator Neil Gershenfeld of MIT Center for Bits and Atoms and David Carr of Make Your Bot who optimised the code that is in use here. Convert image to G-Code. Python Basics. NET (pythonnet) is a package that gives Python programmers nearly seamless integration with the. The code that converts the pre-loaded baseball list to a 2D numpy array. Graphical Python program to convert a 2D dxf drawing to CNC machine compatible G-Code, including preview window. This book presents Python in tight connection with mathematical applications and demonstrates how to use various concepts in Python for computing purposes, including examples with the latest version of Python 3. githubusercontent. The min() and max() functions of numpy. ravel Return a flattened array. None of these newer web-based 3D approaches approach the breadth and depth of the desktop SciVis. # An example from scipy cookbook demonstrating the use of numpy arrys in vtk import vtk from numpy import * # We begin by creating the data we want to render. ) and processing of 3D arrays. Collectively, lines 2-24 make a 3D array. Use depths to resolve overlaps Q. This means I get a 2D array from the 3D one. numpy() PyTorch functionality. You can however use the sorted() function which returns a list. As shown in the equations 2 and 3, if we knew the right pose ( and ), we could predict the 2D locations of the 3D facial points on the image by projecting the 3D points onto the 2D image. array(pilimg) Convert numpy array to PIL image pilimg = Image. You can using reshape function in NumPy. In particular, these are some of the core packages:. h, and that's it. It is important to note that information on this page may change without any notice. Machine learning data is represented as arrays. Python/numpy: Selecting specific column in 2D array. Introduction to array operations []. #!/usr/bin/env python # this works with python2 # Usage: # python pose. 3D Programming In Python We'll be using only python and its official GUI, tkinter (so no official 3D engine will be used like OpenGL(PyOpenGL, PyGame) or Direct3D). Java 2D supports loading these external image formats into its BufferedImage format using its Image I/O API which is in the javax. After using Write to create the image, we take that data, push in a Python buffer, and convert it to a string. But, there is a way. R G B) it would have just one number to define colour. NET (pythonnet) is a package that gives Python programmers nearly seamless integration with the. This tutorial is about converting 2D image into 3D in sketchUp in 5 min. im using :. (Direct Graphics) COORD2TO3 - Returns 3D data coordinates given normalized screen coordinates. While the API is still in early development, it’s pretty easy to see this. com/gto76/python-cheatsheet/master/README. It can be used for processing text, numbers, images, scientific data and just about anything else you might save on a computer. The extension is that since NumPy arrays can be multi-dimensional, a list of N indices (really, a tuple) is needed for an N-dimensional array. feature_extraction. Axara 2D to 3D Converter is designed to create video with 3D effects from ordinary 2D video files. performs a forward transformation of 1D or 2D real array; the result, though being a complex array, has complex-conjugate symmetry (CCS, see the function description below for details), and such an array can be packed into a real array of the same size as input, which is the fastest option and which is what the function does by default; however, you may wish to get a full complex array (for. • Often data come naturally in the form of a table, e. The 3D Viewer uses Java 3D to provide hardware-accelerated 3D visualization of image stacks as volumes, surfaces and orthoslices. // Riley Jenkins /* This application demonstrates how to create an * array that draws an image. How to fill in holes? View interpolation from multiple views 1. I've been using matplotlib but the image turns up grainy and the 3d plot looks nothing shape-wise like the original image. A new free programming tutorial book every day! Develop new tech skills and knowledge with Packt Publishing’s daily free learning giveaway. #!/usr/bin/env python # this works with python2 # Usage: # python pose. np_ex_int_mda = pt_ex_int_tensor. Much of ROS makes use of 3D sensors and point-cloud data, but there are still many applications that use traditional 2D cameras and image processing. Also, we can add an extra dimension to an existing array, using np. Course Description. In this post, we will learn how to perform feature-based image alignment using OpenCV. Convert 3d iso sbs to mkv sbs in description. You need to use NumPy library in order to create an array; If you have a list of lists then you can easily create 2D array from it. By converting an image into a LabVIEW array, you can apply all the analysis, display, and array operators available in LabVIEW to the image data. To perform one dimensional array in python, follow the program given below. These type of problems are encountered while working on projects or. An instructive first step is to visualize, given the patch size and image shape, what a higher-dimensional array of patches would look like. You can using reshape function in NumPy. The preferred le-format currently used in astronomy is known as FITS (or Flexible Image Transfer Sys-tem). Scales down an image into a box of maxSideLenght x maxSideLength. Don’t worry, I am going to prove the above points one by. The second program builds the objects, combines them and displays them. one of the packages that you just can't miss when you're learning data science, mainly because this library provides you with an array data structure that holds some benefits over Python lists, such as: being more compact, faster access in reading and writing items, being more convenient and more efficient. Just post your comments and feel free to ask doubts about this. Loads an image into PIL format. Computer vision is concerned with modeling and replicating human vision using computer software and hardware. With your preparation out of the way, you can now get started actually using Python to draw a graph from a CSV file. These work in a similar way to indexing and slicing with standard Python lists, with a few differences Indexing an array Indexing is used to obtain individual elements from an array, but it can also be used to obtain entire rows, columns or planes from multi-dimensional arrays. The array can be 2D or 3D with any sized integer values. Python: convert 1D list to 3D numpy array. The idea is damn simple, you import the image file as a 2D array where each element is a tuple of 3 numbers (RGB values) or 4 numbers ( if the alpha is also there) or is just a number if the original image is a grayscale image to start with. Essentially, visvis is an object oriented layer of Python on top of OpenGl, thereby combining the power of OpenGl with the usability of Python. performs a forward transformation of 1D or 2D real array; the result, though being a complex array, has complex-conjugate symmetry (CCS, see the function description below for details), and such an array can be packed into a real array of the same size as input, which is the fastest option and which is what the function does by default; however, you may wish to get a full complex array (for. The : is for slicing; in this example, it tells Python to include all rows. Python Array Examples Python arrays. Re: how to declare a 2D array in python if it is going to be a sparsley populated array, that you need to index with two integers, you might find that a dictionary with a tuple (x,y) as the key might work just as well. Trace2SCAD is distributed as full source code under Creative Commons - Attribution constraints. Net convert bytearray to image c# , vb. If isVector is True, then a 3D array will be treated as a 2D vector image, otherwise it will be treated as a 3D image. rc Yawi 3D (Yet Another Wand for ImageJ) implements a 3D selection tool plugin for ImageJ suitable for CT scanned images; it helps in the selection of 3D Region Of Interest (ROI) containing a tumor mass; it also provides a measure of ROI Spriteric - 2D Sprite Converter v. The last bullet point is also one of the most important ones from an ecosystem point of view. Convert image to (multi-dimensional) array in SimpleITK. yea, good luck with that !. Image Info Panel. Arrays and lists are both used in Python to store data, but they don't serve exactly the same purposes. To only create an array of value of the number of counts, should I go into my csv files and remove the MCA properties and save them with only the three columns of values?. This article is part of a series on numpy. Hi, I have generated an array of random numbers and I'm trying to then write this array to a. That, as we mentioned, takes a massive amount of data to train and improve. Hot Network Questions Pull-up sequence accumulator counter Selecting columns and rows in a matrix Links to webpages in. 标题:Converting 2D Array into 3D Array Numpy Python 3. • Examples: • Lab book of multiple readings over several days • Periodic table. The second thing is particularly. Scanline rendering: constructs an image by moving an imaginary line over the image; Warnock algorithm; Line Drawing: graphical algorithm for approximating a line segment on discrete graphical media. Here we will use NumPy library to create matrix of random numbers, thus each time we run our program we will get a random matrix. They are extracted from open source Python projects. The 3D mesh generator has been trained with the silhouette images. GetUpperBound: Returns how many elements are in a dimension (bound) of the array. table("data. While python lists can contain values corresponding to different data types, arrays in python can only contain values corresponding to same data type. convert the. Parameters: file: the name of a DICOM image file; Returns a 3D array with the pixel data of all the images. 2D to 3D Converter And Export Python Code. Unofficial Windows Binaries for Python Extension Packages. This will return 1D numpy array or a vector. I am struggling with a processing and hopefully I will be able to solve here. We compute indexes based on an "x" and. Can you please upload it or something else which can do the job. The maximum and minimum value is dranwn in this area to reflect the image array range. import matplotlib. Meyer Sound EASE Files. x not yet tested, but would probably work) Numpy 1. In this tutorial, we'll show you how to extend this function to display 3D volumetric data, which you can think of as a stack of images. To call values from the array, imagine the 3D array above as a collection of tables. Experts-exchange. Please explain what you're trying to do, and we can suggest a solution. , spreadsheet, which need a two-dimensional array. itemset() is considered to be better. Create your own 3D images. imshow_numeric_test index , a library which converts an M dimensional vector index to a one-dimensional vector index; it can handle zero and one based indexing schemes, as well as column major and row major conventions. …You can also convert Pandas DataFrames…to Python dictionaries. jpg") arr = numpy. Linear Peak SPL will be 12. imread() andcv2. This post details how you can convert an image to canvas and convert a canvas back to an image. Vectorize Image with Python scikit-image. Image data can represent at typical 2D image, but also, a 3D volume. Convert Z-buffer to range image 3. Creating numpy array from python list or nested lists. In this post we will see how to organize a set of movie covers by similarity on a 2D grid using a particular type of Neural Network called Self Organizing Map (SOM). Supports the full featureset of Mason, allowing component-based web development with Python-embedded HTML, and includes many new concepts and features not found in. I did some experiments with MS paint and saw that converting a JPEG image to a GIF does exactly the same. How to convert 3D arrays to 1D arrays ? for example i want to Edit arr[i][j][k]; but i don't want addressing array with this way. COLOR_BGR2GRAY) else: # scrip blurring. To read an image in Python using OpenCV, use cv2. Convert dictionaries with list of values into a dataframe - [11/4] Python print random line from file without repeat - [7/6] What is the difference between "if x == True" and "if x:" - [7/3] Why is the 'all' implementation slower than writing a for loop - [7/1] Get Max value comparing multiple columns and return specific values - [6/8]. Following python program ask from user to enter the total number of elements, he/she wants to store in the array. png') and then they slice the array, but that’s not. Load a DICOM image into a numpy array. tounicode ¶ Convert the array to a unicode string. _ex-electrode-pos-2d: ===== How to convert 3D electrode positions to a 2D image. If you wish to use separate masks for channels, you can extract the channel, apply the operation and store the resulting channel back in the array. The generator tried to minimise the difference between the silhouettes reconstructed into 3D shape. 3D reconstruction from stereo images in Python. However, for comparison, code without NumPy are also presented. List is a common type of data structure in Python. Exhaustive, simple, beautiful and concise. itemset() is considered to be better. Arrays are usually referred to as lists. I just started learning image processing and I was trying to read a RGB image then convert it to grayscale. Mayavi is a Python. py and add the following functions needed to create Gaussian derivative kernels and apply them to the image. We can find an index using:. which are not divisible by 3. This means I get a 2D array from the 3D one. The following are code examples for showing how to use keras. I couldn't find any info about the bast way to do this in numpy, a typical scenario is converting a x by y array of floats into a x by y by 3 array of 8-bit ints. I have divided elements accordingly for easy understanding. However, since ndarray::shape returns a slice, I need to convert the slice to a tuple manually using the to_tuple function. A feature map looks for matching 0’s and 1’s in an image in a nutshell. Below is a simple example of a dashboard created using Dash. The two-dimensional array (i. Each NumPy array has a. Also I need to keep a reference to my original array. Orange Box Ceo 6,607,951 views. you are converting a 24 bpp image to 8 bpp grayscale. In Python, arrays from the NumPy library, called N-dimensional arrays or the ndarray, are used as the primary data structure for representing data. Viewed 8k times 2 $\begingroup$ I have a 3D matrix like this:. print ('2D data generated') #3D data img. Class FabioImage. It builds on top of many existing open-source packages: NumPy, SciPy, matplotlib, Sympy, Maxima, GAP, FLINT, R and many more. origin = np. This module provides two helper functions that allow you to convert between Numerical Python (dead link) arrays and PIL images. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. And: For initializing the values, we use the String constructor and then the {} brackets to contain the element rows. For 2D histograms, its parameters will be modified as follows:. imshow() function. pyplot as plt import mpl_toolkits. asnumpy and we're assigning that result to the Python variable np_ex_int_array. 2D Histogram in OpenCV¶ It is quite simple and calculated using the same function, cv2. Ask Question Asked 12 months ago. If the Base64 string is a valid image it will be displayed in full size. open(“example. Contribute to Python Bug Tracker. In this tutorial, you will discover how to. The geniuses at my uni decided to teach python instead of PHP, so now I'm stuck with it for my assignments. convert the. one of the packages that you just can’t miss when you’re learning data science, mainly because this library provides you with an array data structure that holds some benefits over Python lists, such as: being more compact, faster access in. It is possible to index into a flat array as though it is two-dimensional. I want to plot a numpy 2d-array (i. coord_transform (x, y, z, affine) ¶ Convert x, y, z coordinates from one image space to another space. This program illustrates how to use one dimensional array in python. Arrays are often implemented via lists, the 2D arrays can be implemented via lists of lists. You can help. An alternative (and better) method: a = [6,7,29] print sum(a). The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: